Russula (Rússula) are agaric, belonging to the family Russula. These are quite common mushrooms of the third category. They are rich in vitamins C, E, group B, PP, macro- and microelements, fatty acids, lecithin, proteins and carbohydrates. Regular consumption of russula helps to cleanse the gastrointestinal tract, and also inhibits the deposition of cholesterol.
The hats of young russula can have a spherical or bell-shaped shape, during the growth process they straighten and become flat or funnel-shaped. Their dry film, depending on the type, has a very different color and can be either shiny or matte. The inside of the hats is covered, depending on the variety, with frequent or rare, brittle descending plates of white or pale yellow color.
Russula have a fairly dense, but very fragile pulp of white color. Cylindrical hollow legs are even, less often thickened to the base. Mushrooms have a delicate, sweet aroma with fruity notes and nutty flavor.. In addition to delicious edible russules, there are species in which there is a bitter and burning taste, and they are completely unsuitable for consumption. That is why it is important to know the signs of both.
The most common types of edible russula found in our country include the following.
- Russula marsh (Russula paludosa) is characterized by a hat with a smooth, slightly sticky surface, white or pale yellow plates and white flesh. It has a semi-conical shape, which later becomes concave. Its diameter is an average of 15 cm, the main color is bright red, and the middle is dark brown. White or pinkish legs reach 12 cm in length and not more than three in diameter. The smell of this type of mushroom is absent, the taste is soft and delicate.
- Russula scaly or greenish (Russula virescens) has a hat from 5 to 15 cm in diameter, conical, and later concave, with a depression in the center and white-colored plates. The pale green or gray-green surface of the fungus often bursts and becomes covered with white-colored plates. The legs are quite thick and elastic. The flesh of white color has a nutty taste and a pleasant light aroma. These mushrooms are considered one of the best Russula.
- Russula food (Russula vesca) the diameter of the hat varies from 5 to 9 cm. In young specimens, it has a hemispherical shape, and in older specimens it is flat. It has a matte surface of a wide variety of shades from white to wine red or greenish brown and rare white plates. Strong cylindrical legs are white or yellow-brown in color. Mushrooms have a light nutty flavor.
Russula: view features (video)
- Russula blue-green (Russula cyanoxaniha) has a hat from 4.5 to 16 cm in diameter with lilac, grayish-blue or violet-green color. It is characterized by a hemispherical shape, an adhesive surface and pubescent edges. The inner surface with frequent, strong and flexible plates has a white color. Young mushrooms have dense white flesh, old specimens are friable and slightly yellowish.
- The russula is whole (Russula integra) hats initially have a hemispherical shape, with growth they become flatter and then concave. They have a diameter of 6 to 15 cm, milky white, and then yellowing plates. The elastic, easily crumbling flesh becomes loose and yellow over time. The color of the surface ranges from brown-red to dark brown. Whole russula is characterized by thick short legs that become hollow over time.
False Types of Russula
No type of russula is poisonous, they are simply inedible due to their taste characteristics: some cannot be eaten due to strong bitterness, while others contain substances that cause burning and irritate the mucous membranes. Unfortunately, false russula in practice is very difficult to distinguish from edible, as often they look almost the same. Therefore, it is possible to determine what kind of fungus is by licking it with the tongue, and then rinse the mouth plane.
- The hat has a burning-caustic Russula (Russula emetica) strong dense pulp, frequent elastic plates of white color, bright red shiny surface. At the very beginning of growth, it has a bell-shaped shape, then it straightens and becomes flat. In diameter, it is no more than 10 cm. The legs of this type of mushroom are very fragile. Their length is approximately 8 cm and a diameter of 2 cm. This mushroom can be confused with a very similar russula.
- Russula Kele (Russula queletii), or Russula pink, has a sticky hat of purple color with a diameter of 5 to 8 cm. In young mushrooms, it has a convex shape, and then straightens and becomes funnel-shaped. On the inner surface are plates of whitish-cream color. Pink legs reach from 6 to 8 cm in height and no more than two in diameter. The smell resembles a mixture of fruits, the taste is very bitter.
- Russula blushing false (Russula fuscorubroides) smooth hat has a purple-purple or black color. It is slightly convex in young mushrooms and strongly concave in old ones. For this species, grooved edges are characteristic. Orange-white plates are bent by arches. Legs narrowed at the bottom and colored in hats are decorated with strips of bright red color. The pinkish flesh smells of fruit and is bitter.
- Russula ocher yellow (Russula ochroleuca) is characterized by a bright yellow smooth, sticky hat from 5 to 12 cm in diameter. At the beginning of growth, it has a hemispherical shape, which over time changes to open. Frequent white plates grow to the fleshy pedicle. The mushroom pulp has a white color, which turns gray over time. The taste of these mushrooms is very spicy and burning.
- Dark Blue Russula Hats, or sardonyx (Russula sardonia), have a diameter of about 10 cm, convex initially and becoming concave during growth. The bitter, burning flesh has a yellowish color. White plates turn yellow quickly. On light purple legs, yellowish spots are clearly visible.
Locations and dates of collection
Both edible and false russula on the territory of our country grow almost everywhere in any coniferous or deciduous forest. They love the edges, clearings, roadsides covered with moss. The very first specimens appear in pine forests in the sand in early June. The main harvest begins in August and ends in early October.
There are several ways to cook and preserve russula for the winter. They are salted, pickled, frozen, fried and stewed. Harvesting does not take much time, since these mushrooms are easy to clean and wash.
Russula is most often used as a pickling mushroom.
- Mushrooms (raw) - 1 kilogram;
- Water - 1 liter;
- Salt - 60 grams;
- Clove - 5 pieces;
- Allspice (peas) - 10 pieces;
- Bay leaf - 5 pieces.
- Peel the mushrooms, leave in cold water for two hours, then rinse well.
- Put salt, spices and mushrooms in boiling water.
- After the mushrooms settle to the bottom of the pan, they must be removed from the heat, put in jars, pour brine and close with plastic lids.
- Mushrooms (raw) - 1 kilogram;
- Water - 0.5 liters;
- Salt - 1 tablespoon;
- Sugar - 1 teaspoon;
- Acetic acid - 1 teaspoon;
- Clove - 5 pieces;
- Black pepper (peas) - 10 pieces;
- Bay leaf - 5 pieces;
- Dill seeds - 1 teaspoon.
- Bring the water to a boil, add salt, sugar, spices and mushrooms to it.
- After boiling the mushrooms for 20 minutes, you need to arrange them in sterilized jars, pour the marinade and cork with plastic lids.
Store mushrooms in the refrigerator or cellar. Canned russula is ready for use ten days after preparation. From them you can cook a wide variety of dishes.
How to cook russula (video)
Of course, properly cooked russula is a very tasty dish. But you should know that you do not need to eat more than 200 g of this product in one go. And for those who suffer from any diseases of the cardiovascular system, stomach or intestines, it is better not to eat them at all, as this can lead to an exacerbation of the disease.