Proper treatment of rose bushes in the spring includes removing used to protect plants from freezing winter shelters, as well as competent pruning of all old and damaged shoots after wintering, mulching the plot, top dressing, protection from the most common diseases and garden pests. Care for decorative culture in the spring begins with the fact that it is necessary to timely open the rose bushes after winter.
When and how to open roses
As soon as the time has passed for severe and prolonged frosts, at a low, but positive air temperature, you need to take care of the roses and open the bushes, but not immediately completely, but gradually removing the winter shelter. It is advisable to completely remove lutrasil, spanbond, agril, spantex, agro-SUF or agrospan and spruce spruce branches only after the soil has warmed up optimally. In the middle lane of our country, it is best to open garden roses between mid-April and the first decade of May, and when growing a decorative culture in the more northern regions, it is advisable to open plants from the first decade of May until the first days of June.
At the first stage, it is necessary to remove part of the snow mass from the flower garden and equip drains to drain melt water, which will prevent flooding of the decorative culture and decay of the root system. When growing young standard-type plants that were bent for the winter period, the aerial part of the plant should not be straightened and fixed on supports immediately after opening. After the complete melting of the snow mass, it is required to very carefully, but carefully dig the soil around the rose bushes. The soil used for late autumn hilling should be carefully distributed over the area of the flower garden.
If part of the plants has completely frozen out as a result of winter frosts, then it is necessary to carry out spring planting of new rose bushes. Before planting rose seedlings with an open root system, it is necessary to inspect the aerial parts of the plant and roots. Soaking the roots of the decorative culture favorably affects before planting on a permanent place in the solution on the basis of the heteroauxin and Kornevin rooting compounds. Planting is carried out after the threat of defeating the seedlings by spring return frosts has passed.
It’s recommended to cover the roses planted in the spring with a film for a couple of weeks, which will accelerate the survival of the root system of the decorative culture. With very active spring sun, plants may need shading after planting or removing the shelter, and then the time for pruning comes.
How to care for roses after winter (video)
Spring pruning rules
The most important condition for proper spring care is to trim to the activation phase of the kidneys and growth processes. All dying shoots are subject to mandatory removal, since their presence violates the decorative effect and is a hotbed of pathogenic microflora.
To trim adult rose bushes, you should use:
- secateurs to remove coarse and thick branches;
- garden scissors with long handles to remove branches located in the thick of the bush;
- a small saw;
- a garden knife;
- work gloves;
- garden varieties, allowing you to process slices.
When performing sanitary pruning, shoots that are dead, affected by diseases or frosts, as well as too thin shoots and branches growing deep into the bush, are first of all removed. When performing the main pruning, it is necessary to shorten the strong shoots to the level of the upper living and full kidney. When cutting, you need to remember that the crown of the bush must be aired, which will reduce the risk of damage by pathogenic microflora.
Spring pruning can be short, medium or long:
- performing a short pruning on the bottom of the shoot, you need to count four buds and remove the rest of the branch, which allows you to rejuvenate the plant and reanimate frostbitten rose bushes;
- with medium spring pruning, early flowering is stimulated, as well as an increase in the decorative qualities of a garden rose. Such pruning involves the abandonment of seven kidneys and can also be used in the summer;
- long pruning is used if necessary to make easy shortening of the shoots, and this option is very popular also in the summer when removing already faded buds.
The standard pruning height of the tea-hybrid rose bush is 0.8-1.0 m, and for the floribunda rose is approximately 0.4-0.5 m. Other species can be cut at a height of 25-30 cm, taking into account varietal and species characteristics . When growing park and climbing varieties of roses, it should be remembered that flower buds are formed on last year's shoots and pruning should be minimal.
After trimming damaged and weak branches, shortening the topmost shoots is done by a couple of buds. Repeatedly flowering climbing roses need to shorten the side shoots for two to four buds, taking into account the fact that buds are laid on young new shoots.
Implementation of timely garter shoots of garden roses gives them the right direction of growth and makes the plant as decorative and attractive as possible from the point of view of landscape design ... It is especially important after pruning to correctly use supports for climbing varieties of decorative culture and tall bush roses. Stamp varieties of garden roses need to be installed in an upright position and tied to support stakes.
How and what to feed roses (video)
Spring feeding and watering technology
For young and unproductive rose bushes, it is enough to carry out a couple of dressings during the growing season. The first fertilizer is applied in the spring, immediately after the pruning of the plants, and the second fertilizing is important for the decorative culture in the summer, which will allow you to get the magnificent flowering of the second wave.
For spring top dressing, it is advisable to use fertilizers, which include magnesium, potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen. A good result is the addition of mineral fertilizing with organics in the form of bird droppings or mullein. Before feeding, it is very important to carry out high-quality loosening of the soil and nourish the soil in the tree stem circles with water.
It is also recommended to introduce soil mulching into spring garden care activities for garden roses, which contributes to the accumulation of heat in the root system, allows you to save moisture, and supplements the soil with useful components. Properly executed mulch protects the root system from sudden cold and overheating.
As mulch, you can use rotted sawdust, hay, compost or shredded paper. You need to mulch roses right after spring dressing, using about five kilograms of mulch on the soil around one plant.
Features of spring prevention
After pruning and top dressing, garden rose bushes must always be sprayed with special preparations in a timely and correct manner, which will reliably protect the decorative culture from damage by pathogenic microorganisms and damage by plant parasites. Spraying ornamental plants is required immediately after removal of the shelter, always before the stage of active budding.
For processing garden roses in home gardening, the most commonly used is 3% Bordeaux liquid or 3% solution of iron sulfate, diluted at the rate of 300 g of the drug per bucket of warm water. Very effective is the treatment of roses with a special preparation "Rose-Clear", which helps protect the plant from damage by rust and powdery mildew, and also reduces the risk of damage to aphid bushes.
How to prune roses in spring (video)
It is important to remember that processing must be carried out in dry and calm weather, preferably in the evening or in the morning, in compliance with all safety precautions.