When preparing a grape planting for the winter, it is very important to correctly carry out all the activities in the fall, which will help to maintain the berry culture without losses until spring, and will also allow you to get a rich and high-quality crop next year.
Features of preparing grapes for winter in the Middle lane: how to cover, crop, process
Proper autumn care is especially important for young grape planting. Saplings, as well as young bushes of this berry culture, regardless of the sortan, have sufficient winter hardiness, therefore, with a snowy frosty winter, the risk of freezing of vines and vine leaves sharply increases. The recently planted seedling of this garden crop is especially prone to frostbite.
The best covering materials
Today, gardeners practice several methods of sheltering grapes for the winter.
Winter pruning rules
Pruning is a mandatory step in gardening. Winter pruning is recommended in the regions of sheltering viticulture and contributes to a more effective shelter of the plant before the onset of winter cold:
- no more than four eyes should be left on the knots of substitution;
- on fruitful vines, it is desirable to leave more than ten eyes;
- slices should be turned inside the plant;
- all left bends must be strong and healthy;
- It is recommended to remove non-barren arrows;
- substitution knots should be as close as possible to the stem;
- it is desirable to process the cut area.
When pruning grape bushes, it is advisable to leave low stumps that will not allow the wounds to heal for too long. The optimal pruning period depends on weather and soil-climatic conditions in the region of grape cultivation. Mandatory removal during this period is subject to all diseased and too old shoots.
Top dressing, watering and other care in the fall
In the fall, water-loading irrigation is very important, which should be done along the trenches that remain after the plants are covered with soil and using special drainage holes. If the soil remains dry, then winter frosts will be able to penetrate deeply into the soil, as a result of which a rupture and death of the root system are often observed. In rainy autumn with well-dug and loose soil, there is no need for water-charging irrigation.
After active growth and a productive phase, grapes need to be replenished, which will allow them to prepare for winter with the highest quality, as well as for the next fruiting season. In autumn, you should adhere to the following recommendations for feeding a berry culture:
- in early September, the first top dressing accelerates the maturation of the vine and prepares the plant for winter;
- for the first feeding, 20 g of superphosphate and 10 g of potassium salt are used for each square meter of the vineyard;
- a good result is the addition of the first top dressing of 1-2.5 g of boric acid, 2 g of zinc sulfate and 2-2.5 g of manganese sulfate;
- in the presence of sandy soil, 1 g of potassium iodine is introduced;
- in the late autumn period, top dressing is carried out by making 25 g of potassium and 25 g of phosphorus per square meter of planting area.
All top dressing must be accompanied by abundant watering.
Protecting the vine from diseases and pests
Processing the vineyard in the autumn period allows preserving the health of the berry culture and is carried out according to the following scheme:
- conduct a visual inspection of the aerial parts of the plant to detect lesions of mildew;
- if necessary, remove diseased shoots and treat the vineyard with chemicals;
- for spraying, you can use Amistar, Mikal, Efal, Delan, Ditan-M45, Strobi, Novozir, Utan, Penoceb, Acrobat, Ridomil Gold "," Kuproksatom "," Kartotsidom "," Sandofanom "," Copper oxychloride, "Oksikhom", "Agiba Peak", "Polyram", "Avixil" or "Folpan";
- if damage to the vineyard by oidium is detected, then the plant is treated with sulfuric preparations;
- with oidium, it is advisable to spray the aerial part of the grape bush “Gray colloid”, “Mikal”, “Fundazol”, “Amistar”, “Vectra”, “Topaz”, “Cumulus”, “Strobi”, “Kartotsid”, “Tiovit-Jet” , "Falcon" or "Impact";
- similar preparations can be used to protect the vineyard from the defeat of phomopsis and anthracnosis;
- a bunch of grapes will scare away infusions based on tobacco and chamomile or Rovikurt;
- for the prevention of cercosporosis, the drugs "Fundazole" or "Polychom" are used.
It is very important to produce timely minting and pinching, allowing to destroy ticks on the vine. It is recommended to trim the grape bushes before wrapping up for the winter with a 3-5% solution based on copper or iron sulfate.
How to cover grapes for the winter (video)
Late-fall landing in the suburbs, in Ukraine, in Bashkiria
Autumn grape planting can be performed from the first decade of October and up to stable soil freezing.
- the site should be open, well protected from cold winds and drafts;
- it is impossible to arrange grape planting near tall fruit plantations of garden trees;
- high-quality seedling has a well-developed annual green shoot with a height of 40-50 cm with a stem thickness of 7-8 mm;
- on a well-developed grape seedling, there should be three or more roots of light brown staining, 10-15 cm long with a thickness of more than 2-3 mm;
- shoots must have well-ripened buds, and immediately before planting, they must be shortened by four eyes;
- the root system after refreshing pruning is recommended to be immersed before planting in a solution based on heteroauxin;
- 50x50x60 landing pit should be prepared in advance, providing high-quality drainage based on crushed stone or brick fight;
- It is recommended to install a pipe in the center of the planting pit for liquid feeding and watering the plant;
- the pit should be filled with fertile soil with the addition of nitroammofoski, wood ash and humus.
After planting, it is necessary to carry out abundant irrigation activities. Autumn planting requires mandatory high hilling of the plant with soil, as well as mulching with needles, sawdust or shavings.
In the autumn period, it makes sense to plant only the most unpretentious, most frost-resistant varieties that are able to take root well before the onset of winter frosts. Currently, there are several such varieties, and all of them justifiably deserve the attention of amateur gardeners.
Storage of grape cuttings until spring
Cuttings (chubuki) of grapes are fairly well preserved until spring at home. Usually, long-term storage of cuttings in the form of a blank of planting material for spring planting is carried out in the cellar or in the refrigerator in accordance with the following recommendations:
- bundles cut in bundles should be placed in a plastic bag, sprinkled with moistened sawdust. It is impossible to tie the bag tightly, as this can disrupt the air exchange and respiration of the planting material. The package with cuttings must be placed for long-term storage in the cellar at a temperature in the range of 2-4 ° C;
- long-term storage of planting material can be carried out in special trenches with a depth of 50 cm at an arbitrary length and width. In this case, cut cuttings must be bundled, laid on the bottom of the sandy bottom of the trench, sprinkled with a layer of moist sand and soil.
You can keep planting material fresh in an ordinary household refrigerator. The chopped cuttings should be wrapped in a damp and clean cloth, and then put in plastic bags and placed on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator.
How to keep grapes fresh longer
When harvesting, gardeners ask how to preserve the berries and leaves of the crop with a minimum of losses. Of course, the most mature late-ripening varieties are stored the longest, but certain rules should be followed when storing them.
Long-term storage of grape berries involves a certain preparation of the store and the implementation of the correct harvest:
- in the room for storage of grapes must be present constant ventilation;
- in winter, the temperature indicators in the storehouse should not fall below the 2 ° C mark of heat, and the optimal indicators can vary between 0-5 ° C;
- pests and mold fungi should be completely absent from the store, so the visit should be pre-processed.
Ripe clusters can be laid out on shelves, stored in wooden tubs or wicker baskets, as well as suspended from the ceiling.
Grape leaves for the preparation of dolma can be stored in several ways:
- leaf freezing;
- pickling preservation;
- dry canning;
- salting and dry salting.
Most often, washed and dried leaves are stacked in stacks of up to thirty pieces and wrapped in cling film. Such a workpiece is perfectly stored in a household freezer.
How to prune grapes before leaving to winter (video)
Currently, grapes are in demand in the same way as thousands of years ago. The berries and leaves of this culture are eaten fresh, and serve as an excellent basis for harvesting. To grow this valuable and popular plant in the conditions of home gardening is not too difficult, it is enough to follow the technology and adhere to all the recommendations listed above.