Actinidia, or Actinidia, is a deciduous plant from the genus Woody Vines belonging to the family Actinidia, or Actinidiaceae. In our country, consumers are more aware of the fruits of cultivated varieties, such as kiwi, or delicious actinidia.
Shrub lianas are characterized by regular, whole, without stipules leaves and buds, which are completely or partially hidden by leaf scars. Flowers have different sizes, and their diameter can vary between 10-30 mm. The flowers are solitary or collected in small inflorescences and are located in the leaf sinuses.
Perianth double, 4−5-membered. Corollas have a cup shape. Rare species have fragrant flowers. Fruits are represented by oblong berries of yellow-green or light orange color. Some varieties form edible fruits.
Species selection and characterization
On the territory of Russia, less heat-loving and more hardy species of actinidia are grown, which include the species "Colomikta" and "Argutta". The culture forms very useful fruits that are superior to citrus fruits in the content of ascorbic acid.
According to experienced gardeners, in the Urals and Siberia it is advisable to grow actinidia colomict. Varieties of this type of actinidia differ in terms of ripening, yield indicators and sugar content in fruits.
Experts recommend giving preference to planting material grown in nurseries and plant growing organizations, which guarantee the quality and health of the plant being sold. Actinidia has a very fragile and delicate root system, therefore, it is very important to purchase seedlings that have a closed root system. It is also not recommended to plant plants older than two to three years.
Actinidia: planting and care (video)
Actinidia belongs to dioecious garden crops, therefore, not only female but also male plants should be planted in a ratio of 5: 2 seedlings. Not very favorable soil and climatic conditions of the region do not allow for the autumn planting of plants, so in the fall you should only prepare planting pits for garden culture. Planting actinidia should be carried out according to technology and involves the implementation of the following measures:
- it is best to place plants on trellises, placing them around the perimeter of the garden or along the walls of any structures;
- a good option for placing actinidia in a garden or garden plot is to plant for the purpose of landscaping arbors, canopies or fences;
- despite sufficient shade tolerance, fruiting can be achieved exclusively in conditions of good sunlight;
- it is preferable to carry out an ordinary planting, placing landing pits from north to south and maintaining a distance between rows of 3-4 m with a distance of 1.5-2 m between planted plants;
- planting pits should have a depth and diameter of 0.5-0.7 m, and when planting in trenches, their depth should be 0.5-0.6 m with a width of 0.4-0.5 m;
- at the bottom of the pit or trench, it is necessary to equip a drainage over which garden soil is poured with the addition of: 8-10 kg of humus, 0.2 kg of superphosphate, 50 g of ammonium nitrate and 70-80 g of potassium salt for each landing pit;
- Actinidia grows and develops best on slightly acidic and acidic, as well as soils with neutral pH values.
The site should not have stagnation of moisture, and also be exposed to the negative effects of high-lying groundwater.
Actinidia kolomikta is one of the slowest growing plants, belongs to the most shade-tolerant species of actinidia, therefore needs minimal care:
- during the first year after planting at a permanent place, it is recommended to shade plants from the scorching rays of the sun using non-woven material or a special mesh;
- watering should be minimal, and to preserve moisture in the soil it is allowed to use mulching in near-stem circles;
- the soil in the area around actinidia should be clean of weeds, and loosening should be very superficial and rare;
- at the initial stage of the growing season, plants should be fed with nitrogen or organics at the rate of 2 kg per square meter of plantings;
- in the summer, it is advisable to feed actinidia with infusion of wood ash, and in the fall 40 g of superphosphate and 10 g of potassium salt per square meter are added;
- for the winter period, young plants should be mulched with leaf humus, and then covered with spruce branches.
Actinidia: variety selection (video)
Actinidia perfectly combines frost resistance, excellent decorativeness and quite abundant fruiting, which makes this garden culture very interesting and attractive from the point of view of household cultivation.